|Abstract||A group of 5 adult Merino sheep with fleeces about 70 mm long (7-months growth of wool) was treated with a topical formulation of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, alphacypermethrin, applied to the dorsal mid-line. Insecticide concentrations at the tip, middle and base of wool staples collected from meridians along the back, upper and lower flanks were measured at intervals from 1 to 98 days after treatment. Some movement of the alphacypermethrin from the back to the lower body occurred within 24h after treatment, but despite careful application of the insecticide there was wide variation in the concentration between and within meridians. The majority of the alphacypermethrin remained close to the dorsal mid-line and near the tip of the staple. There were significant differences in the concentration between the tip, middle and base segments of the staples in the back and lower flank meridians (P 0.05). Numbers of pyrethroid-susceptible lice surviving exposure in vitro for 20 h differed significantly between samples collected at different times after treatment, lice survived for 20 h in wool taken from parts of the fleece that contained high (P < 0.05). The numbers of lice surviving in samples collected within 28 days after treatment tended to be lower than in those collected from 28 to 98 days but, in some samples, regardless of time after treatment, concentrations of alphacypermethrin.