|Abstract||Sheep of two bloodlines of Merino were artificially infested with equal numbers of lice (Bovicola ovis) and the resulting louse populations were monitored over the following 20 months. The sheep were shorn 6 and 17 months after infestation and, for analysis, the louse counts considered in 3 years separated by shearings. Nematode faecal egg counts (FECs) were assessed on faecal samples collected on five occasions, three times following natural challenge and twice after artificial challenge with 40,000 trichostrongyloid larvae (84% Trichostrongylus vitrinus). In addition, blood samples were collected and measured for B. ovis-specific immunoglobulins (predominantly IgG), B. ovis-specific IgE and serum total IgE. Bloodlines differed significantly in the size of louse populations at the end of year 2, FEC after both natural and artificial challenge and in serum levels of all three antibodies (p0.05). FEC following artificial challenge was significantly correlated with louse counts in year 3 (r=0.36, p0.05) or year 1 (r=0.04, p>0.05). Louse counts in the 3 years were significantly correlated with anti-B. ovis antibody concentration (r=0.60, 0.48, 0.36), but not with levels of either anti-B. ovis or total serum IgE.These results suggest that sheep with greater resistance to gastrointestinal parasites also tend to be less susceptible to lice. Whether this is due to interaction of the effects of the parasites or to correlation in underlying resistance mechanisms requires clarification.